The goal of this post is to give an alternative perspective on making a sheaf over $X = \Ran^{\leqslant n}(M)\times \R_{\geqslant 0}$, alternative to that of a previous post ("Artin gluing a sheaf 3: the Ran space," 2018-02-05). We will have one unique sheaf on all of $X$, valued either in simplicial complexes or simplicial sets.

Recall from previous posts:

Our sheaves will be defined using colimits. Fortunately, both $SC$ and $\sSet$ have (small) colimits. Finally, we also need an auxiliary function $\sigma:\Op(X)\to SC$ that finds the correct simplicial complex. Define it by \[ \sigma(U) = \begin{cases}

S_{k,\ell} & \text{ if } U\neq\emptyset, \text{ for } k = \max\{1\leqslant k'\leqslant n\ :\ U\cap \Ran^k(M)\times \R_{\geqslant 0}\neq \emptyset\}, \\ & \hspace{2.23cm} \ell = \max\{1\leqslant \ell'\leqslant N_k\ :\ U \cap B_{k,\ell'}\neq\emptyset\},\\

* & \text{ if }U= \emptyset.

\end{cases} \]

To check the gluing condition, first note that every open $U\subseteq X$ must nontrivially intersect $\Ran^n(M)\times \R_{\geqslant 0}$, the top stratum (in the point-counting stratification). So for $W = U\cap V$, if we have $\alpha\in \mathcal F(U)$ and $\beta \in \mathcal F(V)$ such that $\alpha|_W = \beta|_W$ is a $k$-simplex, then $\alpha$ and $\beta$ must have been $k$-simplices as well. This is because a simplicial takes a simplex to a simplex, and we cannot collide points while remaining in the top stratum. Hence the pullback of $S\owns \alpha$ and $T\owns \beta$ via some induced maps (by descending paths) from $U$ to $W$ and $V$ to $W$, respectively, will restrict to the identity on the chosen $k$-simplex. Hence the gluing condition holds, and $\mathcal F$ is a sheaf. $\square$

Functoriality of $[\ \cdot\ ]$ allows us to extend the proof to build a sheaf valued in simplicial sets.

**Remark:**Here we straddle the geometric category $SC$ of simplicial complexes and the algebraic category $\sSet$ of simplicial sets. There is a functor $[\ \cdot\ ]:SC\to \sSet$ for which every $n$-simplex in $S$ gets $(n+1)!$ elements in $[S]$, representing all the ways of ordering the vertices of $S$ (which we would like to view as unordered, to begin with).Recall from previous posts:

- maps $f:X\to SC$ and $g = [f]:X\to \sSet$,
- the $SC_k$-stratification of $\Ran^k(M)\times \R_{\geqslant 0}$,
- the point-counting stratification of $\Ran^{\leqslant n}(M)$,
- the combined (via the product order) $SC_{\leqslant n}$-stratification of $\Ran^{\leqslant n}(M)\times \R_{\geqslant 0}$,
- an induced (by the $SC_k$-stratification) cover by nested open sets $B_{k,1},\dots,B_{k,N_k}$ of $\Ran^k(M)\times \R_{\geqslant 0}$,
- a corresponding induced total order $S_{k,1},\dots,S_{k,N_k}$ on $f(\Ran^k(M)\times \R_{\geqslant0})$.

*descending path*if $t_1<t_2\in I$ implies $h(\gamma(t_1))\geqslant h(\gamma(t_2))$ in any stratified space $h:X\to A$. Below, $h$ is either $f$ or $g$.**Lemma:**A descending path $\gamma:I\to X$ induces a unique morphism $h(\gamma(0))\to h(\gamma(1))$.*Proof:*Write $\gamma(0) = \{P_1,\dots,P_n\}$ and $\gamma(1) = \{Q_1,\dots,Q_m\}$, with $m\leqslant n$. Since the path is descending, points can only collide, not split. Hence $\gamma$ induces $n$ paths $\gamma_i:I\to M$ for $i=1,\dots,n$, with $\gamma_i$ the path based at $P_i$. This induces a map $h(\gamma(0))_0\to h(\gamma(1))_0$ on 0-cells (vertices or 0-objects), which completely defines a map $h(\gamma(0))\to h(\gamma(1))$ in the desired category. $\square$Our sheaves will be defined using colimits. Fortunately, both $SC$ and $\sSet$ have (small) colimits. Finally, we also need an auxiliary function $\sigma:\Op(X)\to SC$ that finds the correct simplicial complex. Define it by \[ \sigma(U) = \begin{cases}

S_{k,\ell} & \text{ if } U\neq\emptyset, \text{ for } k = \max\{1\leqslant k'\leqslant n\ :\ U\cap \Ran^k(M)\times \R_{\geqslant 0}\neq \emptyset\}, \\ & \hspace{2.23cm} \ell = \max\{1\leqslant \ell'\leqslant N_k\ :\ U \cap B_{k,\ell'}\neq\emptyset\},\\

* & \text{ if }U= \emptyset.

\end{cases} \]

**Proposition 1:**Let $\mathcal F$ be the function $\Op(X)^{op}\to SC$ on objects given by \[ \mathcal F(U) = \colim\left(\sigma(U)\rightrightarrows S\ :\ \text{every }\sigma(U)\to S \text{ is induced by a descending }\gamma:I\to U\right). \] This is a functor and satisfies the sheaf gluing conditions.*Proof:*We have a well-defined function, so we have to describe the restriction maps and show gluing works. Since $V\subseteq U\subseteq X$, every $S$ in the directed system defining $\mathcal F(V)$ is contained in the directed system defining $\mathcal F(U)$. As there are maps $\sigma(V)\to \mathcal F(V)$ and $S\to \mathcal F(V)$, for every $S$ in the directed system of $V$, precomposing with any descending path we get maps $\sigma (U)\to \mathcal F(V)$ and $S\to \mathcal F(V)$, for every $S$ in the directed system of $U$. Then universality of the colimit gives us a unique map $\mathcal F(U)\to \mathcal F(V)$. Note that if there are no paths (decending or otherwise) from $U$ to $V$, then the colimit over an empty diagram still exists, it is just the initial object $\emptyset$ of $SC$.To check the gluing condition, first note that every open $U\subseteq X$ must nontrivially intersect $\Ran^n(M)\times \R_{\geqslant 0}$, the top stratum (in the point-counting stratification). So for $W = U\cap V$, if we have $\alpha\in \mathcal F(U)$ and $\beta \in \mathcal F(V)$ such that $\alpha|_W = \beta|_W$ is a $k$-simplex, then $\alpha$ and $\beta$ must have been $k$-simplices as well. This is because a simplicial takes a simplex to a simplex, and we cannot collide points while remaining in the top stratum. Hence the pullback of $S\owns \alpha$ and $T\owns \beta$ via some induced maps (by descending paths) from $U$ to $W$ and $V$ to $W$, respectively, will restrict to the identity on the chosen $k$-simplex. Hence the gluing condition holds, and $\mathcal F$ is a sheaf. $\square$

Functoriality of $[\ \cdot\ ]$ allows us to extend the proof to build a sheaf valued in simplicial sets.

**Proposition 2:**Let $\mathcal G$ be the function $\Op(X)^{op}\to \sSet$ on objects given by \[ \mathcal G(U) = \colim\left([\sigma(U)]\rightrightarrows S\ :\ \text{every }[\sigma(U)]\to S \text{ is induced by a descending }\gamma:I\to U\right). \] This is a functor and satisfies the sheaf gluing conditions.**Remark:**The sheaf $\mathcal G$ is non-trivial on more sets. For example, any path contained within one stratum of $X$ induces the identity map on simplicial sets (though not on simplicial complexes). Hence $\mathcal G$ is non-trivial on every open set contained within a single stratum.*References:*nLab (article "Simplicial complexes"), n-category Cafe (post "Simplicial Sets vs. Simplicial Complexes," 2017-08-19)